Revenge Tragedy- A revenge tragedy is a drama in which the dominant motive is revenge

Elements common to all revenge tragedy includes
1. a hero who must avenge an evil deed often encouraged by the apparition of a close friend or relative
2. scenes of death and mutilation
3. insanity or feigned insanity
4. sub plays within the play itself
5.violent death of the hero

                            PLOT-HAMLET by Williams Shakespeare
        King Hamlet has suddenly died,his throne as king is taken over by his brother,Claudius. And two months later,he and Queen Gertude, King Hamlet's widow,gets married. Her son,Prince Hamlet is as astonished as the people of Denmark,for not only is the death unexpected,the  remarriage and the exclusion of price Hamlet to the throne is also a big surprise. Hamlet becomes depressed.
        Not long after,a rumor gets to prince Hamlet, that an apparition which resembles his father,the dead King had been observed by soldiers on guard before the palace at midnight for two or three successive nights.
        Convinced from the testimonies, that the apparition is his father,Hamlet in the company of Horatio and Marcellus, a guard,proceeds to await the ghost's appearance. Suddenly as Horatio and Hamlet are chatting over the coldness of the night,the ghost appears.
         The ghost identifies himself as King Hamlet,who had been brutally killed as he was sleeping in the garden by his own brother [Claudius]. Claudius killed him so as to take over his throne and his bed. The ghost urges Hamlet to seek revenge, but in seeking revenge against King Claudius he should not touch Gertude.
         Hamlet returns home and feigns madness. Before this time,Hamlet had fallen in love with Ophelia,daughter of Polonius, King Claudius' chief adviser. Ophelia takes all this  misbehavior of Hamlet as a result of depression.
        In this state of madness,he arranges a drama which describes the death of Old Priam,King of Troy. Hamlet organises the play to suit the situation of Denmark. Claudius feels uneasy after watching the play,so he sends Gertude to talk to her son.
        As Gertude and her son engages in conversation,Hamlet condems his mother for her actions. Gertude is scared that she calls for help. A voice is heard from her closet is  screaming ''help! help the queen''
. Thinking it was Claudius voice,Hamlet strikes his sword in the direction of the scream. However when he dragged out the dead body,it was Polonius'.

          At  the pretext of peace and reconciliation,King Claudius encourages Laetes[Polonius son] to challenge Hamlet to a friendly trial of skill at athe art of fencing.  Hamlet accepts the challenge., unknown to him that Laertes sword is poisoned. Soon after the fencing starts, Laertes gives Hamlet a deadly thrust, Hamlet also gives Leartes a similar thrust. At that moment,the queen screams that her drink is poisoned. She has unknowingly drunk out of a  bowl poisoned by the king,meant for Hamlet. King Claudius has reserved the poisoned drink for Hamlet in case Laertes sword doesn't hit him. The queen continues to protest, Laertes suspecting his own life ebbing away openly admits that he had poisoned his own sword.
      When Hamlet realizes that his end is near, he suddenly thrust Laertes weapon at the usurping King.
Hamlet,Laertes,Claudius and Gertude all died.They all died a tragic death

      In HAMLET, both Hamlet and Laertes seeks to avenge their fathers' death,they both got what they wanted, both they both paid the ultimate price, death.

1. The impossibility of certainty- What separates HAMLET, from other revenge play is that the action we expect to see,particularly from Hamlet himself is continually postponed while Hamlet tries to obtain more certain knowledge about what he is doing.
2. The mystery of death-The idea of death is closely tied to the themes of spirituality, truth and uncertainty in that death may bring answers to Hamlet's questions. Since death is both the cause and consequences of revenge, it is intimately tied to the theme of revenge and justice
3. The nation as a deceased body-Denmark is portrayed as a physical body which is infested by Claudius wickedness and corruption.

Major conflict-Hamlet wants to avenge his father's death. Moreover, he struggles whether he can kill Claudius or not.

Rising action-The ghost urges Hamlet to avenge his death

Climax- The play Hamlet staged
The death of Polonius

Falling action- Hamlet  fight with Lartes


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